Serbia needs to transition to a greener growth model for internal and external reasons. Internally, Serbia’s economy is still characterized by low energy and resource productivity, with significant impacts on health and the environment. As a candidate country for EU membership, Serbia also needs to react to external influences by aligning domestic policies with the EU’s energy, environment, and climate legislation, while avoiding negative impacts of the EU’s planned Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM). This report draws from a rich analysis to provide recommendations on how the transition to greener and more resilient growth in Serbia can begin. First, environmental fiscal reforms are needed to incentivize the adoption of more environmentally friendly technologies. The implementation of carbon pricing will also enable Serbia to proactively prepare for the upcoming EU CBAM. The proceeds of carbon pricing should be reinvested in innovation and education to further accelerate the green transition. Second, institutional frameworks need to be strengthened to support the government in delivering on reforms. Third, sector-specific reforms will need to address important challenges like energy efficiency, air pollution, waste management, water, and wastewater. Importantly, the transition needs to be based on a coherent and adaptive roadmap, which mitigates the risks of ‘brown’ growth, protects those adversely impacted, and ensures an equitable distribution of the benefits of increased growth.